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Raising Hands During Prayer (Rafa Yadain), Placement of hands and Recitation in prayers

Some people say that I should do Rafa Yadain. Some say that I should keep my hands on my chest when in qayam while a few others say that I should place them under my naval. Some move their fingers many times in tashahud while some raise it once. Then some tell to not recite behind the imam while others says there is no prayer without recitation of Al-Fatihah. Why the difference? And what is the right approach?
Please also tell me what things are not required in prayers. For instance, are reciting durood or attahayat necessary?
Finally, what else can be said in ruku and sujud other than subhana rabbiy al-azeem and subhana rabbiy al-aala? Reciting the same phrases over and over makes the prayer mechanical.


My understanding is that Rafa Yadain was sometimes done by the prophet, alaihissalaam, but on most occasions he didn’t do so. You should recite al-fatiha when the imam is not audible but should not do so when he is audible. Moving the finger is one option; the other is to raise it just at the time when you say shahadah. Do what you think suits you better.
Apart from al-fatiha, some part of the Quran, Sami’Allahu liman Hamidahu, and Allahu Akbar, nothing was fixed by the prophet in the prayers. Apart from the customary utterances, you can use other possibilities, even in your own langaugae, in the other parts of the prayers. However, if you stick to the possibilities suggested by the prophet, alaihissalaam, it would be better.